Thursday, June 4, 2020

Unit VII Educational planning and financing

Unit VII Educational planning and financing
Five year plans: Educational policy making and budgeting - Funding systems of education: Public, fees, students’ loans, education chess and external aids.
Educational Planning

Planning is the process of preparing a set of decisions for action during a specific period of time to achieve a set of goals. Educational planning can be defined as ‘the process of setting out in advance, strategies, policies, procedures, programmes and standards through which an educational objective can be achieved”
Need for Educational Planning
Educational planning is needed to tone up the administrative machinery, to improve the infrastructure facilities of educational institutions, to increase teacher efficiency and involve the public in the development of education. The need for educational planning entails the following:
·         Planning is necessary for administrative decisions in education, for it aims at putting into action what educators deems to achieve.
·         Planning enables a nation to make its choices clear in terms of the aim and objectives.
·         Educational plans are designed to avoid in balances and enormous wastes
Significance of Educational Planning
·         Proper educational planning saves time, effort and money
·         Educational planning is essential for the best utilization of available resources.
·         It checks wastage and failure and contributes to the ease and efficiency of the administrative process in the field of education.
·         Planning in education is necessary for making one’s educational journey goal-oriented and purposeful.
·         Educational planning is highly essential for preparing a blueprint or plan of action for every programme of an educational institution or organisation
·         To bring total development of a nation in time, in which educational development is one among its various aspects.
·         To reflect the modern developments like explosion of knowledge, advancement of science and technology, development of research and innovation
·         Educational planning facilitates gathering of educational experts, teachers, supervisors and administrators for taking decision in relation to the realisation of purposes of educational programme.
Educational Financing
Financing is defined as the act of providing funds for business activities, making purchases or
investing. Financial institutions and banks are in the business of financing as they provide capital to businesses, consumers and investors to help them achieve their goals. The Education funding comes from many different sources. All allocation of funds to education should be determined by the educational budget and improvement of education should be made within the educational financing
The allocation of funds to education purely from the economic point of view- should be decided by the future needs of skilled man power in various sectors of national life.
Essential Principles of Educational Financing
·         Allocation of funds to education should be determined by the educational budget
·         Improvement of education should be made within the financial and human resources available in the country.
·         Enhancement of educational opportunities to all, a large number of scholarships, stipends and free studentship should be given to the students.
·          Special grants for physical activities, libraries and reading rooms, expenses on special programmes like mid-day meals etc., should be given.
·         The allocation of funds should decided by the future needs of skilled man power in various sectors of national life.
Five Year Plans: Educational Policy making and Budgeting:
From the commencement of economic planning in 1951-52, the education sector has remained the priority sector of the central as well as the state governments. In the first and subsequent five year plans, the government provided development finance to the States through the Planning Commission, to meet the capital needs of their education systems. A brief description of plan priorities with respect to education is as follows:
The First Five Year Plan (1951-56)
The First Five Year Plan emphasized universalaization of primary education and strengthening of the secondary education. It aimed to achieve 40% to 60% enrollment of those aged up to 11 years in 1950. Total planned budget was Rs.2069 crore. It was allotted 16.74% for Social activities including Education
Five Indian Institute of Technology  (IITs) were started as major technical institutions. The university Grants Commission (UGC) was set up to take care of funding and take measures to strengthen the higher education in the country.
Second Five Year Plan (1956-1961)
The Second Five Year Plan laid stress on basic education, expansion of elementary education, and diversification of secondary education. The following were the highlights for the Second Five Year Plan:
      Launched Indian Statistical Institute, Atomic Energy Commission and Tata institute of fundamental Research
      Allotment of money for education is 307 crore
      Primary education :89 crore
      Secondary education : 51  crore
      Higher education: 57 crore
      Educational  technology and vocational education: 48 crore
      Social education:  5 crore
      Administration: 57 crore
      The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Atomic Energy Commission of India were established as research institutes.
      In 1957, a talent search and scholarship program was begun to find talented young students to train for work in nuclear power
      The number of Students Enrolment in Primary education increased  in 264.6 to 406.3 lakhs
      No.of schools for Primary Education increased  in 278.13 to 342 thousands
Third Five year Plan: (1961-1966)
      Allotment of money for education in third plan was 400 crore
      The Third Five Year Plan envisages increase in the number of primary schools by 73,000, of middle schools by 18,100 and of high schools by 5,200.
      State Secondary Education Boards were formed.
      Education Commission (1964-66) was appointed to advice ‘on the national pattern of education and on the general principles for development of education at all stages and in all respects’. 
Plan Holidays (from 1966–69)
 The main reason behind the plan holiday was the Indo-Pakistan war & failure of third plan.
Fourth Five Year Plan:  (1969-1974)
At this time Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. Incorporating the recommendations of the Education Commission, the Fourth Five year plan aimed at providing free and compulsory education up to the age of 14. It was stated that “Facilities for universal elementary education are pre-requisite for equality of opportunity.”  The fourth plan also focused on for higher education: The highlights of the Fourth Five Year Plan are as follows:
·         Nationalization of 14 banks
·         Pokran I Nuclear test
·         Allotment of money for education from Central 271, state 499.89 and union territories 51.77crore
·         Importance to Science and technology
·         Focused on In-service training, Curriculum reform and  preparation of books
The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974 to 1979)
The Fifth Five Year Plan laid emphasis on ensuring equality of opportunities as part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice. Following are the Fifth Five Year Plan highlights:
      Allotment of money for education was 1284.29 crore
      Allotment of money for Elimentary and Middle school was 742.8 crore
      Focused on increasing the employment opportunity, eradicating poverty and social justice
The Sixth Five Year Plan (1978-83)
The basic objective of this plan was poverty eradication and technological self reliance. The Sixth Five-Year Plan marked the beginning of economic liberalization. Following are its highlights:
·         Allotted  more money for higher education
·         It was proposed that universalisation of primary education (for the age group 6-11) would be achieved by the end of the plan (1985) and universalisation of upper primary level (11-14) by 1990.
The Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90)
Rajiv Gandhi as the prime minister and the plan laid stress on improving the productivity level of industries by upgrading of technology.
The main objectives of the Seventh Five-Year Plan were to establish growth in areas of increasing economic productivity, production of food grains, and generating employment through “Social Justice”. For the first time the private sector got the priority over public sector. Its highlights are
·         Universalaization of elementary education will continue to be part of the Minimum Needs Programme
·         Special care was taken to spread education among girls
·         The objective is sought to be achieved through a combination of formal and non-formal methods, focusing sharply on the needs of girls and of children belonging to the economically and socially weaker section
·         The plan was very successful; the economy recorded 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%.
Annual Plan (1990 – 1992)
The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97):
In this plan the top priority was given to development of the human resources i.e. employment, education, and public health. During this plan Narasimha Rao Govt. launched New Economic Policy of India. It was the beginning of liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG) in India. The following were the highlights of the Eighth Five Year Plan on Education:
·         Universalaization of elementary education,
·         Eradication of illiteracy in the age group of 15 to 35
·         Strengthening of vocational education
·         Focused on girl’s education and women's literacy which has a beneficial impact on children’s literacy as well as other national objectives like population control and family welfare.
·         Special attention was paid to increase retention, improvement of quality, specification of minimum levels of learning (MLL) and their attainment by the learners.
The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002):
The Ninth Five-Year Plan came after 50 years of Indian Independence. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the prime minister of India during the Ninth Plan. Special Action Plans (SAPs) were evolved during the Ninth Plan to fulfill targets within the stipulated time with adequate resources. The SAPs covered the areas of social infrastructure, agriculture, information technology and Water policy. Following are its highlights:
·         Primary education was a major thrust area during the 9th Plan. It was estimated that there would be an additional enrolment of 2.5 crore children at the lower primary stage and 1.6 crore children at the upper primary level.
·         It was targeted that 75000 additional rooms /buildings will be constructed at the elementary stage.
·         2, 36,000 teachers will be appointed additionally at the lower primary level and         1, 75,000 teachers at the upper primary level.
·         There were equity concerns like low enrolment of girls, educational requirements of special need groups, like SCs/STs, OBCs, minorities, disabled children, working children, children from disadvantaged locations like deserts, hilly, coastal and deep forest areas, children from migratory families etc.
The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007):
The Tenth Plan targets in respect to elementary education were:
·         All children in the 6-14 age groups should have access to primary schools, upper primary schools or their alternatives within a walking distance of one Km and three Kms. respectively.
·         There should be one upper primary school for every two primary schools. 
·         All schools should have buildings, toilets, drinking water, electricity, playgrounds, blackboards and other basic facilities.
·         There must be provision of one classroom for every teacher at the elementary stage.
·         Enrolment of all children in schools or alternative arrangements by 2003
·         All children to complete five years of primary schooling by 2007, Universal retention in the primary stage by 2007
·         Dropout rate to be reduced to less than 10 percent for grades VI-VIII by 2007.
·         Improve the quality of education in all respects to ensure reasonable learning outcomes at the elementary level, especially in literacy, numeracy and in life skills.
·         Bridge all gender and social gaps in enrolment, retention and learning achievement in the primary stage by 2007 and reduce the gap to 5 percent in the upper primary stage by 2007.
·         Although the Tenth Five Year Plan recommended that the outlay by the central government on Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) during 2002-03 to 2006-07 should amount to Rs 17000 crore, it remained short of funds till 2004-05.
The Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–11):
It was in the period of Manmohan Singh as a prime minister. Plan focuses on education with objectives of reduce dropout rates and develops minimum standards of educational attainment in elementary school, and by regular testing monitor effectiveness of education to ensure quality, increase literacy rate. Highlights of this plan are as follows:
·         It aimed to increase the enrolment in higher education of 18–23 years of age group by 2011–12.
·         It focused on distant education, convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions.
·         Rapid and inclusive growth (poverty reduction).
·         Emphasis on social sector and delivery of service therein.
·         Empowerment through education and skill development.
·         Reduction of gender inequality.
·         Environmental sustainability.
Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17):
Twelfth five year plan focuses on universalaization of elementary educations.
The twelfth five year plan has total gross budgetary support of Rs 3,43,028 crores to school education and literacy, out of this, share for SSA is Rs. 1,92,726 crores, for MDM,  Rs. 90,155 crores, for RMSA Rs. 27,466 crores and for other components is Rs. 32,681 crores.
The objectives of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan were:
·         To create 50 million new work opportunities in the non farm sector.
·         To remove gender and social gap in school enrolment.
·         To enhance access to higher education.
·         To reduce malnutrition among children aged 0–3 years.
·         Integration of pre-school education into schooling especially in the government schools. Funding for pre-school children under  ECCE,
·         Stepping up provision of infrastructure through convergence with schemes strengthening of monitoring and evaluation mechanism
Funding systems of education:
Sources of Fund for Education in India categorize as External Internal Sources, Public Private Fees, Endowment Donation and funds from Central Government, State Government, District administration, Municipalities and Panjayath
The Funding systems of education in India is coming under Public Funding, funds from fees, students’ loans, education chess and external aids.
i.               Public Funding:
Funds for education were distributed from Central Government, State Government, District administration, Municipalities  and Panjayath through Finance Commission on the basis of the allotment by the Planning Commission
Planning Commission
Planning Commission was established during 1950 when the Five-Year Planning Process was launched. All Plans are discussed and finalized by it. The Level of plan expenditure by state and central govt. is determined by it. The Programme and their goals to be realized
Finance Commission
The Finance Commission takes care of the transfer of non-plan resources between the centre and states. The Finance Commission in India is a statutory body appointed by the President of India once every five years. It makes its recommendation on the distribution of resources
Procedure for Fund Allocation
The Finance Commission receives detailed statements from the states of their requirements for each head of account including the details of receipts and expenditures. The Finance Commission, in its turn, reassesses these state forecasts and recommendations for an allocation of resources to be made.
      ii.           II.  Fees: Student fee is a fee charged to students at a school, college, university or other place of learning. It may be charged to support student organization or activities or for intercollegiate programs such as intramural sports or visiting academics. Fees may collected as a means to remedy shortfalls in state funding.  At Public University or college, further fees may be charged for features and facilities such as insurance, health and parking provision.
    iii.            Students’ loans: An education loan covers the basic course fee and other related expenses such as college accommodation, exam and other miscellaneous charges. Presently, the banks do not ask for any collateral or third-party guarantee for loan up to Rs 4 lakh. For loans above Rs 4 lakh up to Rs 7.5 lakh, a third-party guarantee is required. Collateral is asked for loan exceeding Rs 7.5 lakh. Once the loan application is accepted, the banks disburse the amount directly to the college/university as per the given fees structure.
Interest rate: The banks uses the Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR), plus an additional spread to set an interest rate. Presently (in 2017), the additional spread is in the 1.35-% range.
Repayment: The loan is repaid by the student. Generally, the repayment starts when the course is completed. Some banks even provide a relaxation period of 6 months after securing a job or a year after the completion of studies for repayment. The repayment period is generally between 5 and 7 years, but can be extended beyond that as well. During the course period, the bank charges simple interest rate on the loan. The Ministry of Human Resource Development implements Central Scheme of Interest Subsidy for Education Loans (CSIS)
Vidya Lakshmi: Vidya Lakshmi is a portal for students seeking Education Loan. This portal has been developed under the guidance of Department of Financial Services, Department of Higher Education and Indian Banks Association. Students can view, apply and track the education loan applications to banks anytime, anywhere by accessing the portal.
    iv.            External Aids: At the request of the Indian government, the World Bank has announced plans to increase its support to India. The bank’s programming will focus on expanding access to education, health care and other basic services. Apart from world bank, India also got financial aid from Japan, Germany, Asian Development Bank, United Kingdom, France, United States and European Union

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Unit VI Policy frameworks on education: Post-independent India

Unit VI Policy frameworks on education: Post-independent India

Major recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-1966) - Iswar Bhai Patel Committee (1977)- Malcom Adiseshiah Committee (1978)- New Education Policy (1986) - Programme of Action (1992)- Sachar Committee (2005) - Salient features of National Curriculum Framework (2005)- National Knowledge Commission (2005).

In pursuance of the constitutional mandate, the Government of India, has initiated several measures for social and economic reconstruction of the country. The educational reconstruction has been one among such measures. Various commissions and committees were appointed at different times to survey, study, review and recommend improvements in the existing system, policies and programmes of education.
Major recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-1966)
Appointment of the Kothari Commission
Kothari Commission was appointed on 14th July, 1964, consisted of 17 members, and Dr. D.S. Kothari, chairman of the U.G.C. was appointed as the chairman of the commission. Among the members of the commission 5 educationists were from England, America, France, Japan and Russia.
The Unique Features of the Education Commission
·         All the earlier commissions did not deal with education as a whole but focused attention on different levels of education. But this commission has a comprehensive review of the Entire Educational System.
·         The commission believed that education is the most powerful instrument of the national development. The crucial role of education in national development appears in all its vividness on every page of the report.
·         The international composition of the commission is also significant. So that the commission included 7 Indian members and 5 others; 1 each from Japan, France, U.K., U.S.A. and USSR. Besides, 20 consultants from different countries of the world were available.
Terms of Reference
Report of the Kothari Commission
·         Section I: deal with general problems.
·         Section II: deal with education at different stages and in different sectors.
·         Section III: deals with implementation of the various recommendations and programmes suggested by the commission.
·         Section IV: consists of supplementary papers.
The programmes of educational reconstructions proposed in this report fall into three broad categories:
·         Internal transformation of the educational system
·         Qualitative improvement of education and
·         Expansion of educational facilities
Recommendations of the Kothari Education Commission
i) Education and National Objectives         
In order to relate education, the commission recommended the following objectives;
1)      Increase in Productivity
2)      Promoting social and National Integration
3)      Education and Modernization
4)      Developing social, moral and spiritual values.
1)         Increase in Productivity
The Commission suggested that education must be related to productivity to increase national income. In order to link education and productivity the Indian Education Commission made the following recommendations:
a.       Science is the basic component of education and culture; so it should be made an integral part of school education.
b.      To inculcate the value of manual work the commission recommended the introduction of work experience in school education.
c.       To meet the increasing needs of technical personnel in Industry, agriculture and trade the commission recommended introducing vocational subjects in school curriculum. It also opined that the vocationalisation will bring education into closer relationship with productivity.
2) Promoting social and National Integration
The commission made the following recommendations for strengthening social and national integration through education:
a.       To make education a powerful instrument of national development, common school system of public education should be adopted.
b.      Bridge the gulf between the educated and the uneducated intellectuals and masses, social and national service should be made an integral part of school education.
c.       A language is a firm adhesive for social and national integration, suitable provisions should be made for teaching mother tongue, Hindi and other Modern Indian languages in schools.
3. Education and Modernization
The present society is the science based society and had rapid social change. In the situation of change, the school must always be alert if it is to keep abreast of significant changes. To keep pace with modernization the International Education Commission (IEC) is of the opinion that “greater emphasis must be placed on vocational subjects, science education and research.”
4. Social, moral and spiritual values
To cultivate the social, moral and spiritual values among students the commission made the following recommendations.
·         The Central and State governments should adopt measures to introduce education in moral, social and spiritual values in all institutions
·         In order to develop social, moral and religious values, some periods should be provided in the time table. Instruction of this type should be given by general teachers.
·         The University departments should be especially concerned with the ways in which these values can be taught wisely and effectively and should undertake preparation of the special literature for use by students and teacher.
ii) Removing the isolation of Teacher Training:
The commission recommended the teacher education must be brought into the main stream of academic life of the universities on one hand and school life and educational developments on the other.
1) Following were recommended to remove the existing isolation of teacher education from university life.
a. Education should be recognized as an independent academic discipline and introduced as an elective subject in courses for the first and second degree.
b. Schools of education should be established in selected universities to develop programmes in teacher education and studies and research in education, in collaboration with other University discipline.
2) To remove the existing isolation of teacher education from schools.
·         Extension work should be regarded as an essential function of a teacher training institution
·         Effective alumni associations should be established to bring old students and faculty together to plan programmes and curricula.
·         Practice teaching for teachers should be organized in active collaboration with selected schools
·         Periodic exchange of the staff of the cooperating schools and of the teacher training institutions should be arranged.
3) An intensive effort should be made to remove the existing separation among the institutions
·         Comprehensive colleges of education should be established in each state.
·         Establishing a state board of teacher education in each state to the responsible for all functions related to teacher education at all levels and in all fields.
iii) Improving Professional Education:
The commission has emphasized the importance of improving the quality of teacher education. It can be done through;
·         Organization of well-planned subject orientation or content courses in collaboration with university departments.|
·         Introducing integrated courses of general and professional education in universities.
·         Using improved method of teaching and evaluation.
·         Improving practice teaching and making it a comprehensive programme of internship.
·         Developing special programmes and courses.
·         Revising the curricula and programmes at all levels in the light of the fundamental objectives of preparing teachers for their varied responsibilities in an evolving system of education.
Duration of Training Courses:
The duration of professional courses should be two years for primary teachers who have completed the secondary school course. It should be one year for the graduate students; but the number of working days in a year should be increased to 220.
v) Improving the Quality of Training Institutions:
Secondary Teachers:
·         The staff of secondary training colleges should have a double master’s degree in an academic subject and in education. A fair proportion of them should hold doctorate degrees. They should all have taken induction or orientation courses in teacher education.
·         Qualified specialists in subjects like Psychology, Sociology, Science or Mathematic may be appointed on the staff even if they have not had professional training.
·         Summer institutes should be organized for the in-service training of staff.
·         No student should be allowed to specialize in the teaching of a subject unless he has studied it for his first degree or obtained an equivalent qualification prior to training.
·         States and Union territories should adopt a rule that teachers in secondary schools will ordinarily teach only those subjects which they had studied for a university degree.
·         Attempts should be made to recruit first and good second-class students to teacher training institutions and adequate scholarships should be provided for them.
§  All tuition fees in training institutions should be abolished and liberal provision made for stipends and loans.
§  Every training institution should have an experimental or a demonstration school attached to it.
§  Adequate hostel facilities for trainees and residential accommodation for staff should be provided.
§  Libraries, laboratories, workshops, etc., are very inadequate at present in most institutions, especially at the primary level. These need to be improved.
§  Expansion of training facilities.
In-service Education of School Teachers
·         The commission recommended that every teacher would receive at least two or three month’s in-service education in every five years of their service.
·         The programme of summer institutes for the in-service training of secondary schools should be extended.
Professional Preparation of Teachers in Higher Education
The commission recommended that the teachers should prepare themselves for higher education. They should learn higher education for improve their profession.
Standards in Teacher Education
For maintaining standards, the commission recommended that at the national level the UGC should take the responsibility for the maintenance of standards in teacher education. The State Board of Teacher Education should be responsible for the raising of standards at the state level.
IV.  Educational Structure|
The Commission recommended a new structural pattern of education. The new educational structure should be as follows:
·         One to three years of pre-school education.
·         A primary stage of 7 to 8 years divided into a lower primary stage of 4 or 5 years and a higher primary stage of 3 or 2 years.
·         A lower secondary stage of 3 or 2 years of general education or 1 to 3 years of vocational education.
·         A higher secondary stage of 2 years of general education or 1 to 3 years of vocational education,
·         50% of the total would be under vocational education,
·         A higher education stage of 3 years or more for the first degree course followed by courses of varying durations for the second or research degrees.
·         The structural pattern thus recommended by the commission is commonly known as 10+2+3.
Let us know the structural pattern of education;
·         Pre-school education from 1 to 3 years should also be given.
·         General education should last for a period of 10 years( 4 years of lower primary, 3 years of higher primary and 3 years of lower secondary education)
·         Higher secondary education should be fixed for 2 years
·         Degree course should be of 3 years
·         The age of admission to class I should not be less than 6+
·         The first public external examination should come at the end of the first 10 years of schooling
·         Secondary schools should be of two types:
Ø  High schools providing a 10 years’ course and
Ø  Higher secondary schools providing a course of 11 or 12 years
·         A new higher secondary course consisting of classes XI and XII should be introduced. The pre-university courses should be transferred from Universities and added to the secondary schools.
·         The Commission has been suggested the re-organisation of the university stage. At this stage, the three year degree has been favoured by the Commission.
Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee (1977)
The All India Council of Technical Education at a meeting held during the year 1974-75, made   important recommendations relating to the establishment of appropriate links between industry   and educational research institutions, programmes of vocational education and the establishment of teacher training centres in the field of management education. With the passage of time, the Review Committee on the curriculum, for the ten years schooling, popularly known as Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee (1977), categorically recommended in its report for the compulsory introduction of Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) at the secondary schools.
Main concept the report (1977)
The Ishwarbhai Patel Committee Report (1977), while reviewing NCERT’s ten-year school curriculum framework (1975), observed that the curriculum should be capable of relating learning “closely to socially productive manual work and the socio-economic situation of the country” and making it available “in such a way that working and learning can always be combined.”
Preferring to term “purposive, meaningful, manual work” in the curriculum as Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW), the Committee observed: “The purpose of demarcating a distinct curricular area as Socially Useful Productive Work is to emphasise the principle that education should be work-centred”.
Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW)
Education  Commission, 1964-66, identified  work  experience  and  social  service  as  essential elements of purposeful education. These two elements were integrated into a holistic concept andwas  re-named  Socially  Useful  Productive  Work (SUPW) by  the  Ishwarbhai  Patel  Review   Committee (1978).
Aim of this curricular area
The aim of this curricular area is to provide children with opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the classroom, enabling them to understand scientific principles and processes involved in different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and social environment. It must not be confined to the four walls of the school, nor can they be provided by the teacher only. Programmes should, therefore, be so planned and implemented that the local community, community development organizations and governmental agencies participate in them and cooperate with the school.
Curriculum for the Ten-Year School – A Framework’
The Ishwarbhai Patel Committee Report (1977) reviewed NCERT’s document entitled ‘The Curriculum for the Ten-Year School – A Framework’ published in 1975 and observed that the 10-year curriculum should be capable of:
·         Molding the learner after the image of citizen as visualised in the Constitution
·         Releasing learning from its bookishness and elitist character so as to relate it closely to socially productive manual work and the socio-economic situation of the country;
·         Emphasizing the qualities of simplicity, integrity, tolerance and cooperation in all aspects of life; and
·         Being available to every individual in such a way that working and learning can always be combined.
Impact of Socially Useful Productive Work
After the recommendations of 'Ishwarbhai Patel Committee' (July, 1977), which first coined the term 'Socially Useful Productive Work' or SUPW, the subject was first introduced to the school curriculum in 1978, by Ministry of EducationGovernment of India. A period was allotted in the time-table for this purpose. The main purpose of this scheme was to inculcate in learners, the liking and love for the dignity of labour. To begin with, there was much enthusiasm for the implementation of SUPW. But as time went on, initiative and zeal gradually slackened. In-fact, tangible result was not achieved. This explains the wide-spread continuing practice of confusing vocational education with the pedagogic role of work in curriculum.
Malcolm S. Adiseshiah Committee (1978)
A Committee was appointed under the Chairmanship of Macolm S. Adiseshiah on 1978, for higher secondary education and the report was entitled ‘Learning to do, towards the Learning and Working socially. It also recommended for SUPW at the school level and vocationalisation of the higher secondary education. It also pleaded eloquently for the effective implementation of relating education to productivity.
Major recommendations of the Committee
·         Learning must be based on Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) or through vocationalised courses
·         Vocational courses should be in agriculture and related rural occupational areas
·         In the general and vocationalised educational spectrum there should be no rigid streaming of courses. In accordance with the availability of facilities and the demand of the area, each school should be allowed to offer such general and vocational courses
·         The higher secondary stage should comprise of a general education spectrum and a vocational spectrum
·         The curriculum should be so structured that the courses lend themselves for imparting instruction interns of well-connected modules to enable the students to choose and combine them according to their needs
·         On a priority basis books should be written suiting to the local needs for imparting instruction in vocational courses
·         Semester pattern and credit system should be introduced in classes XI and XII;
·         To start with counseling and placement officers be appointed in clusters of 3 or 4 schools, particularly in rural areas
·         Services of persons who have had actual experience of on the job may be fruitfully utilized to teach vocational courses. Wherever necessary part-time teachers may be appointed. In respect of teachers of vocational courses there should not be insistence on post-graduate qualification; and
·         For bringing about proposed changes at this stage of education both pre-service and in-service teacher education programme should be properly organised.

New Education Policy (1986)
The National Policy on Education (NPE) or New Education Policy-1986 is formulated by the Government of India to promote education. The policy covers elementary education to collegiate education in both rural and urban India. The first NPE was introduced in 1968 by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986. This new policy called for “special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity”
Goals of New Education Policy-1986:                     
·         To strengthen the principles of equity,  freedom and self-dependence.
·         To promote national unity and spirit of excellence
·         To develop a broad national outlook among the youngsters.
Main features of the policy
National System of Education:
To following criteria were recommended for the National System of Education
·         Promote Quality education
·         Follow the 10+2+3 pattern
·         Developing a national curricular framework
·         Fixing minimum level of learning
·         Competencies for each stage of education
·         Encourage Science education
·         Work experience at all level
Reorganization of education at all levels
Primary Education:
·         Enrolled and retained in schools
·         Public-centered methods
·         Operation Black-Board
·         Individualized Instruction
·         Eliminate ‘Stagnation’
·         Non-formal system of education
Secondary Education:
·         Vocationalization of  Secondary Education
·         Navodaya Schools
Technical education
All India Council for Technical Education(AICTE) was formed to enhance the technical education,
Higher education
  • Autonomous colleges have been opened in large numbers
  • Autonomy will be encouraged for departments in the universities
  • Delinking of Degrees from Jobs have been followed in selected areas
To maintain Equality:
This policy provides equal opportunities to all for education. Navodaya schools have been opened for socially and economically deprived but to talented children. Regional imbalances are also being removed
 Education of Scheduled Castes:
Scholarships, hostel facilities, adult education programmes are being introduced to socially and economically deprived scheduled castes students.
Women’s Education:
New Education Policy gave special emphasis to women’s education. This statement owes that women are the keys to nation’s progress. Eradication of illiteracy, vocational curriculum, nutrition and child care courses, home management, etc., are given priority.
Education for Tribes:
This policy gave main emphasis to the education of tribes. Residential Ashram Schools have been opened for them; and scholarships for higher education are also given to them.
Adult Education:
Education Policy gave a programme for adult education to remove the illiteracy from the masses. For this, adult schools, libraries, distance education, T.V. programmes are being introduced.
Education for Other Backward Classes (OBCs):
 A large number of backward classes, minority classes have not been given any opportunity for education. Scholarships, hostel facilities, adult education programmes are being introduced to socially and economically deprived Other Backward Classes students.
Integrated Education for Disabled Children:
To integrate disabled children with mild handicaps with others in common schools, a revised scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children was started during 1987-88. Under it, cent percent financial assistance is given to State Governments/UT administrations/voluntary organisations for creating necessary facilities in schools.
Educational concessions to children of the defense personnel:
The Centre, State Governments and Union Territories offer educational concessions to children of the defense personnel and paramilitary forces killed or permanently disabled during Indo-China hostilities in 1962 and Indo-Pakistan operations in 1965 and 1971. During 1988, these concessions were extended to children of IPKF/CRPF personnel who were killed/disabled during action in Sri Lanka and children of the armed forces personnel killed/disabled in action in ‘Operation Meghadoot’ in Siachen area

Education of SC/ST/OBC:
The following are the special provisions for SCs and STs have been incorporated in the existing schemes:
§   Relaxed norms for opening of primary schools
·            A primary school within one km walking distance from habitations of 200 population instead of habitations of 300 population;
§   Abolition of tuition fee in all states in government schools at least up to primary level.,
§   Providing incentives like free text-books, uniforms, stationery, school bags, etc.,
§   Reservation of seats for SCs and STs in Central Government institutions of higher education including IITs, IIMs, Regional Engineering College, Central Universities, Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodaya Vidyalayas, etc. Apart from reservation, there is also relaxation in the minimum qualifying cut off stages for admission in universities, colleges and technical institutions. The UGC has established SC/ST cells in 104 universities to ensure proper implementation of the reservation policy;
§   To improve academic skills and linguistic proficiency and raising their level of comprehension, remedial and special coaching is provided for SC/ST students
Education for Minorities:
In pursuance of the revised Programme of Action (POA) 1992, two new Centrally-sponsored schemes, i.e.,
(i)     Scheme of Area Intensive Programme for Educationally Backward Minorities, and
(ii) Scheme of Financial Assistance for Modernisation of Madrasa Education were launched during 1993-94
New schemes launched under NPE:
·         Serva Siksha Abiyan  for Universalisation of Education
·         National Testing Service
·         Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL)
·         Navodaya Schools
·         Delinking Degrees from Jobs

Programme of Action (1992)
The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, aimed at making it “an effective instrument for taking the country into the 21st century”. It envisages improvement and expansion of education in all sectors; elimination of disparities in access and stress on improvement in the quality and relevance of basic education. A modified NPE in its Programme of Action, 1992, called for making the `plus two stage part of school education throughout the country.
Major Recommendations
(i) Universalisation of Elementary Education
Universal access, universal retention, and Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) are the broad parameters to achieve Universalisation of Elementary Education. These are aimed at providing school facilities within a walking distance of 1 km. for children of primary schools, and 3 kms for children of upper primary schools and strengthening of alternate mode of education, non-formal education for school drop-outs, working children, and girls and Minimum Levels of Learning at the primary and upper primary stage.
(ii) Nutritional Support
Mid-day Meal Scheme was launched on August 15, 1995, intended to give a boost to primary education by increasing enrolment, retention and attendance in schools and at the same time augmenting nutritional levels.
(iii) Operation Blackboard
Improving classroom environment by providing infrastructural facilities, additional teachers and teaching - learning materials to primary schools are the aim scheme of Operation Blackboard. Significant progress has been made in the area of teacher training with 444 District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) sanctioned to provide pre-service and in-service training to elementary school teachers, for adult education and non-formal education personnel.
(iv) National Literacy Mission
Making 100 million persons literate was the target of National Literacy Mission (NLM) which was set up in 1988. Under Total Literacy Campaign ( TLC ) and Post Literacy Campaign ( PLC ) 68.57 million persons covering 447 districts were made literate. Out of these, 60 percent are women, 23 percent SCs, and 12 percent STs.
(v) Equal Opportunities
For equal opportunities to the minorities, a provision of Rs.8.8 crore has been made in the Annual Plan outlay of 1998-99 in the Area Intensive Programme for Educationally Backward Minorities, Modernisation of Madarsas and coaching classes by UGC. A programme to provide educational opportunities to disabled children on par with mild to moderate disabilities in the general schools system has been prepared.
(vi) Secondary Education
To improve the quality of secondary education, the number of secondary and senior secondary schools has increased from 0.07 lakh in 1950-51 to 1.02 lakh in 1996-97, resulting in not only an increase in the enrolment but also increase in the number of teachers, including female teachers. The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan manages Kendriya Vidyalayas.
(vii) Technical Education
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) has issued regulations for establishment of new institutions and starting new courses to streamline Technical Education
(ix) University and Higher Education
To improve the quality of Higher Education, all the Central Universities except the Indira Gandhi National Open University are funded by the Central Government through the University Grants Commission. IGNOU is funded directly by the Central Government for promoting the distance education system.
Sachar Committee (2005)
For preparation of a report on the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community of India, Rajinder Sachar Committee was appointed by the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. It was a high level committee.
.Recommendations of Sachar Committee
Sachar Committee report put forward some recommendations for the upliftment of minorities and implementation of these recommendations would strengthen the secular fabric of Indian society as well as increase patriotism due to their all-inclusive progress. Following are the recommendations:
1. Mechanisms to ensure equity and equality of opportunity and eliminate discrimination
2. Creation of a National Data Bank (NDB) where all relevant data for various Socio Religious Communities are maintained
3. Formation of an autonomous Assessment and Monitoring Authority to evaluate the extent of development benefits.
4. An Equal Opportunity Commission should be constituted to look into the grievances of the deprived groups.
5. Elimination of the anomalies with respect to reserved constituencies under the delimitation scheme.
6. The idea of providing certain incentives to a diversity index should be explored to ensure equal opportunities in education, governance, private employment, and housing.
7. A process of evaluating the content of the school text books needs to be initiated and institutionalized.
8. The UGC should evolve a system where part of the allocation to colleges and universities is linked to the diversity in the student population.
9. Providing hostel facilities at reasonable costs for students from minorities must be taken up on a priority basis.
10. The Committee recommended promoting and enhancing access to Muslims in Priority Sector Bank Advances.
11. Policy initiatives that improve the participation and share of the Minorities, particularly Muslims in the business of regular commercial banks
12. The community should be represented on interview panels and Boards. The underprivileged should be helped to utilize new opportunities in its high growth phase through skill development and education.
13. Providing financial and other support to initiatives built around occupations where Muslims are concentrated and have growth potential.
Salient features of National Curriculum Framework (2005)                                         
National Curriculum Framework (NCF) developmental process was initiated in November, 2004 by setting up various structures like National Steering Committee chaired by Prof. Yash Pal and twenty-one National Focus Groups on themes of curricular areas, systemic reforms and national concerns.
Different levels of stakeholders helped in shaping the draft of NCF. The draft NCF was translated into 22 languages listed in the VIII Schedule of the Constitution. The NCF was approved by Central Advisory Board on Education in September, 2005.
Major Observations and Recommendations
Chapter 1: Perspective
·         Knowledge should be connected to life outside the school
·         Learning should be shifted away from rote methods
·         Curriculum should be enriched to provide overall development of children rather than remaining textbook centric.
·         The national system of education in a pluralistic society should be strengthened
·         The curriculum load should be reduced
·         Curricular practices should be based on the values enshrined in the Constitution
·         Quality education for all children should be ensured.
Chapter 2: Learning and Knowledge
    Holistic approach in the treatment of learner’s development
    Inclusive environment in the classroom for all students
    The learners should be made active through experiential mode.
    Adequate room for voicing children’s thinking, curiosity questions in curriculum practices should be provided.
    Knowledge across disciplinary boundaries to provide broader frame for insightful construction of knowledge should be connected.
    Observing, exploring, discovering, analyzing, critical reflection, etc should be considered as important as the content of knowledge.
·      Activities for developing critical perspectives on socio-cultural realities need to find space in curricular practices.
    Local knowledge and children’s experience are essential components of textbooks and pedagogic practices.
Chapter 3: Curriculum Areas, School and Assessment
      Implement 3-language formula.
·         Emphasis on mother tongue as medium of instruction.
·         Curriculum should contain multi-lingual proficiency only if mother tongue is considered as second language.
·         Focus on all skills
Focuses on teaching Mathematics, Sciences, Social sciences, Art Education, Health and Physical Education, Education for Peace, Work and Education.
Chapter 4: School and Classroom Environment
·         Availability of minimum infrastructure and material facilities for quality improvement
·         Specific activities ensuring participation of all children – able and disabled – are essential conditions for learning by all.
·         Participation of community members in sharing knowledge and experience in a subject area
·         Audio/video programmes on NCF-2005 and text-books.
·         Source-book on learning assessment.
·         Exemplar problems in Science and Mathematics.
·         Science and Mathematics kits.
·         Teachers’ handbooks and manuals.
·         Teacher Training Packages.
·         Developed syllabi and text-books in new areas such as Heritage Craft, Media Studies, Art
·         Education, Health and Physical Education, etc.
·         Initiatives in the area of ECCE (Early Childhood Care Education), Gender, Inclusive
·         Education, Peace, Vocational Education, Guidance and Counseling, ICT, etc. Decentralized planning of school calendar and daily schedule and autonomy for teachers professionalism practices are basic to creating a learning environment.
Chapter 5: System Reforms
    Common school system is desirable to ensure comparable quality in different region of the country
    A broad framework for planning upwards, beginning with schools for identifying focus areas
·      Meaningful academic planning has to be done in a participatory manner by headmasters and teachers.
    Monitoring quality must be seen as a process of sustaining interaction with individual schools in terms of teaching-learning processes.
·      Teacher education programmes need to be reformulated and strengthened
·      In-service education needs to become a catalyst for change in school practices
·      Shift from content-based testing to problem-solving , Examination with a ‘flexible time limit’ and  setting up of a single nodal agency for coordinating the design and conduct of entrance examinations are reducing the stress
·      Vocational Education and Training (VET) need to be implemented
·       Availability of multiple textbooks to widen teachers’ choices
·       Sharing of teaching experiences and diverse classroom practices to generate new ideas and facilitate innovation and experimentation.
·      Development of syllabi, textbooks and teaching learning resources could be carried out in a decentralized and participatory manner involving teachers, experts from universities, NGOs and teachers’ organizations

National Knowledge Commission (2005)
On June 13, 2005, the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh constituted the National
Knowledge Commission (NKC) as a think-tank to advise the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) on policy related to education, research institutes and reforms needed to make India competitive in the knowledge economy.
Objectives of National Knowledge Commission
Following are the main objectives of National knowledge Commission (NKC):
·         Transforming India into knowledge society
·         Strengthen the education system, promote domestic research and innovation, and facilitate knowledge application in sectors like health, agriculture, and industry
·         Leverage information and communication technologies to enhance governance and improve connectivity
·         Devise mechanisms for exchange and interaction between knowledge systems in the global arena.
The scope of National Knowledge Commission
The scope of NKC is confined to a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, distance learning, intellectual property, entrepreneurship, application in agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance, etc. National Knowledge Commission has emerged as a powerful and democratic source of information and knowledge on the Internet.
Knowledge Paradigm
The National Knowledge Commission covers five focus areas of the knowledge paradigm. They are 
  1. Access, 
  2. Concepts, 
  3. Creation, 
  4. Applications and 
  5. Services

I.          Access
NKC was established with an aim to provide equal opportunities by providing access to knowledge. It is the most fundamental way of reaching to the citizens. Access to knowledge deals with providing the accurate knowledge to general public in the following way:
1.      Right to Education : Following are the recommendation on Right to Education
·         Legislation at the national level is required to affirm the Right to Education
·         The Central Government must provide additional funds required to ensure the Right to Education
·         To ensure a minimum quality of education, it is important to have a schedule of norms for all schools to follow
·         It is necessary to specify norms for teacher qualification and training
2.      Language: It proposed to formulate a National Plan for the teaching of English as a language, in addition to the regional language, starting in Class I. It will also be ensured that student at the end of twelve years of schooling is proficient in at least two languages.
3.      Libraries: Libraries foster global access to information and they are central hubs of our knowledge. The following are its recommendations:
a) Set up a National Commission on Libraries
b) Prepare a National Census of all Libraries
c) Revamp LIS Education, Training, and Research facilities
d) Re-assess staffing of Libraries
e) Set up a Central Library Fund
f) Modernize Library management
g) Encourage greater community participation in Library management
h) Promote Information Communication Technology (ICT) applications in all Libraries
i) Facilitate donations and maintenance of private collections
j) Encourage Public Private Partnerships in LIS development
4.      Infrastructure: Recommended to enhance the ICT infrastructure. Set certain norms regarding infrastructure, number of teachers per school and per student, teaching methods and other facilities, etc. must be adhere to as necessary conditions
5.      National knowledge network: NKC recommended for Knowledge Networks, and Health Information Network as they purposefully led social entities that are characterized by a commitment to quality, rigor, and a focus on outcomes
6.      Portals: NKC initiated to set up portals on certain key areas such as Water, Energy, Environment, Education, Food, Health, Agriculture, Employment, Citizen Rights, etc.
7.      Health information network: A common Electronic Health Record needs to be created and disseminated widely

II.       Concepts
1.      School Education: Its recommendations suggested for providing universal access to quality school education as a cornerstone of development for Knowledge Society. It further insisted for making it Central Legislation at the national level to affirm the Right to Education, which is a fundamental right mandated by Article 21A of Constitution, Government of India.
2.      Vocational Education Training: NKC recommends for a model of imparting vocational education that is flexible, sustainable, inclusive, and creative. It suggests for significant increase in public and private investment in Vocational Education and Training (VET). It also put forward that the quality and image of VET needs to be actively promoted in order to view it as comparable, and relevant general secondary education.
3.      Higher Education: having 1500 universities nationwide and establishment of an Independent Regulatory Authority for Higher Education (IRAHE). The grant for higher education should increase to at least 1.5 percent of GDP, out of a total of at least 6 per cent of GDP for education. It also recommended for creation of 50 National Universities which provide education of the highest standard. Also gave suggestions on reforms in existing universities, restructuring of existing under graduate colleges and promoting enhanced quality of education
4.      Open and Distance Education and Open Education Resources: It is important to enhance the ICT infrastructure. Websites and web-based services would improve transparency and accountability. A portal on higher education and research would increase interaction and accessibility. A knowledge network would connect all universities and colleges for online open resources.
III.             Creation: Creating the knowledge or help in protecting the knowledge
1.    Intellectual Property Right: For the development of effective legal systems for IPR enforcement and availability of accurate and detailed ready-to-use IPR information. It also recommended for the development of a vibrant IPR culture in the processes of knowledge creation, application and dissemination connected especially with market demand and rewards
2.    Legal Framework for Public Funded Research: National Science and Social Science Foundation Innovation Entrepreneurship was set up for Legal Framework for Public Funded Research
IV.          Applications
1.      Traditional Health System : NKC suggested enhancing India’s Ayurveda, yoga and other traditional health-care systems, establishment of a 10-year national mission on traditional health sciences of India with an initial investment of Rs1,000 crore. It also recommended for enrichment of digitization of India’s medical manuscripts project ‘Traditional Knowledge Digital Library’ (TKDL).
2.      Agriculture: It is must to apply knowledge in fields of agriculture and agricultural education where productivity can be increased. It is necessary to set up portal for agriculture
3.      Enhancing Quality of Life: Enhancing Quality of Life,  NKC suggested quality in education
V.       Services
1.      E-governence: NKC’s major recommendations are to re-engineer government processes, and change the basic governance pattern. Similarly to select some important services that make a significant difference, simplify them and offer them with web interface.
It covers almost all the important fields and factors that affect India to become knowledge economy. It is highly appreciable that the main thrust of the report is on education for achieving rapid and inclusive growth with special emphasis on expansion, excellence and equity. For becoming a global knowledge leader and for taking ‘knowledge edge’, India needs to be in the forefront of creation, application and dissemination of knowledge.